Saturday, October 06, 2007

The American Heritage Dictionary


Our book today is the fourth edition of the American Heritage Dictionary, and lest any of you protest that a mere reference work cannot take its place alongside the high (and low) works of literature with which we routinely deal here at Stevereads, pray think again. Think not only of the awful penalties for second-guessing our wisdom, but of your own famously narrow, parochial reading strictures. Why, you’d read the same Tom Clancy potboiler over and over again, if it weren’t for the guidance you receive here at Stevereads.

And today we’re guiding you toward the latest hardcover American Heritage dictionary, the only example of its kind since Doctor Johnson’s that could be read for pleasure.

What a treasure-trove this book is! And yet, what will strike any potential reader first is its sheer physical beauty, a big, heavy volume of impeccable solidity, fit to be chained to a medieval lectern, or to sit much-consulted on a swivel-shelf in some well-paneled study (we here at Stevereads have a volume always at the open in our palatial office to rebuke the vainglory of our grasping interns, but we also have one open in the oak-finished study of our retreat at Montauk, so that in idle moments late of evenings, with the fire crackling and our gigantic dogs Leni and Blondi gazing adoringly upon us, we may flip to a pertinent definition and sigh, ‘yes, we were, after all, entirely correct’). In an age of increasing digitalization (and hence, increasing marginalization), it’s hard not to view this fourth edition as a flag planted at the valiant edge of old technology. Here, this big book seems to say, here is what old-fashioned print-technology can do – a carefully-chosen panel of experts in their chose fields, assembled under the aegis of this great scholarly endeavor. In this age of Wikipedia, in the era of the cult of the amateur, can the doomed valiance such a proclamation be doubted?

Make no mistake: this enormous book is a vast and valorous challenge to that inevitable future. Its panel of experts, its manifold technical expertise, and most of all its restrained aura of intellectual understatement. All but the very bravest of Internet cooperatives wilt before it, as they should. Dictionaries, true dictionaries, are meant to be consulted physically, not browsed electronically.

And the greatest of these is surely our present work, the greatest American dictionary ever compiled (with all due respect to Mr. Webster). The three previous editions were all sterling works of utility; with the fourth, the whole enterprise is elevated to the level of art, from the stylish minimalism of the dust jacket design to the thoroughly reworked interior visuals.

Most big hardcover dictionaries are full of features their purchasers (usually proud parents of off-going college freshmen, who’d much, much rather have the money involved, so they could at least temporarily feed their colossal, near-overwhelming tobacco addictions) that go overlooked by their word-inquiring possessors, and the fourth edition of the American Heritage is no different in kind, merely in the vast wealth of what’s being ignored.

This edition has all the usual ignored frills – the lovingly formatted and explained history of the various strands that have gone into weaving the English language, the various tables of conversion and measurement, etc. But it has added features all its own, and they are remarkable, cropping up on virtually every page of the book in set-aside boxes. There are discursions on grammar, elucidations on syntax, and one of the most fascinating recurring feature is something called ‘Our Living Language,’ which tracks the shifting vagaries of the way people talk, often making telling points along the way:

“Ax, a common nonstandard variant of ask, is often identified as an especially salient feature of African American Vernacular English. While it is true that the form is frequent in the speech of African Americans, it used to be common in the speech of white Americans as well, especially in New England. This should not be surprising since ax is a very old word in English, having been used in England for over 1,000 years … the forms in x arose from the forms in sk by a linguistic process called metathesis, in which two sounds are reversed. The x thus represents (ks), the flipped version of (sk). Metathesis is a common linguistic process around the world and does not arise from a defect in speaking. Nevertheless, ax has become stigmatized as substandard, a fate that has befallen other words, like ain’t, that were once perfectly acceptable in literate circles.”

But the most fascinating feature of the American Heritage is the recurring Usage Note. These Notes crop up on almost every page, and they aren’t tied to wherever in the alphabet we happen to be – they range at random and so, they consistently surprise and delight:

“Strictly speaking, an epithet need not be derogatory, but the term is commonly used as a simple synonym for term of abuse or sur, as in There is no place for racial epithets in a police officer’s vocabulary. This usage is accepted by 80 percent of the Usage Panel.”

And then there’s this:

“Momentarily is widely used in speech to mean ‘in a moment,’ as in The manager is on another line, but she’ll be with you momentarily. This usage rarely leads to ambiguity since the intended sense can usually be determined on the basis of the tense of the verb and the context. Nonetheless, many critics hold that the adverb should be reserved for the senses [sic] ‘for a moment’ and the extended usage is unacceptable to 59 percent of the Usage Panel.”

Even those two examples will have clued you in to the real drama unfolding in the least likely of places, the latest edition of the American Heritage Dictionary. Yes, in an age where 99 percent of all Western people consult the Internet for 100 percent of their informational needs (and fewer than 10 percent, in consequence, even own a print-and-paper dictionary, much less a big, elaborate volume like this one, striving to be timeless), it turns out the battle for the very soul of our linguistic integrity is being waged in the narrow, hithertofore unknown confines of the American Heritage’s Usage Panel. We’re told that the Usage Panel constitutes ‘200 distinguished writers, scholars, scientists, and other respected users and students of the English language.’ And we can see by any random sampling of Usage Notes that these users and students are not only in serial disagreement but are, in fact, writhing in turmoil.

And a glance at the membership of the Usage Panel (of course, being devoted to helpfulness, the American Heritage lists their names) gives us a glimpse into this epic Manichean war being waged on our behalf, on behalf of the sanctity of the written word, which comprises so much of who we’ve come to be.

Like we said, they post the membership. And the ledger is an ominous thing, not least because so many past members have died and had their definitions rendered obsolete. No, the real reason for the element of quease involved is obvious from the composition of this Usage Panel, past and present. There are angels and demons in the ranks, my dears, and they are fighting over the very essentials of who we say we are.

We won’t name names here at Stevereads; far be it for us to subscribe monickers to the Band of Angels or the Legion of the Damned. We merely lay their names before you – we trust you’ll readily see which side is which:

On the one hand, we have Roy Blount, Letitia Baldridge, Jacques Barzun, Annie Dillard, Howard Fast, John Kenneth Galbraith, Robert Hass, Sue Hubbell, Molly Ivins, Alfred Kahn, Justin Kaplan, Garrison Keillor, Jean Kirkpatrick, William Least-Heat Moon, David Leavitt, Lois Lowry, William Manchester, Richard Rhodes, Frank Rich, Arthur Schlesinger, Elaine Showalter, Ted Sorensen, Wendy Wasserstein, Tony Randall, Eudora Welty, A. Bart Giamatti, Alfred Kazin, Walter Kerr, J. Anthony Lukas, Wallace Stegner, and the mighty Helen Vendler.

And on the other: Sherman Alexie, Margaret Atwood, Rita Dove, Mark Doty, Robin Cook, Pat Conroy, Louise Erdrich, Henry Louis Gates Jr, James Gleick, Stephen Greenblatt, Mark Helprin, Oscar Hijuelos, Douglas Hofstadter, Erica Jong, Tracy Kidder, Jamaica Kincaid, Maxine Hong Kingston, Maxine Kumin, Armistead Maupin, Alice Munro, Mary Oliver, Steven Pinker, Robert Pinsky, E. Annie Proulx, Judith Rossner, Antonin Scalia, Mona Simpson, Susan Sontag, Elizabeth Marshall Thomas, Anne Tyler, Fay Weldon, and David Foster Wallace.

Underneath the erudition and the pages so bright they seem illuminated, this epic battle is the real draw in the fourth edition of the American Heritage Dictionary. Who knew such important drama lay behind the staid façade of a full-dress dictionary?

Your soul is being fought over, just as your grandmothers averred. So go to your local library and alot an hour or two to crawl over it with the attention it deserves. And for the rest of you? Go to your local Barnes & Noble and plunk for the measly $50 for the full-dress hardcover. It’s an essential addition to your personal library.

135 comments:

Aidan said...

who reads the dictionary

Kevin Caron said...

I was gonna go straight to the comment section and call you a dork for writing about a dictionary, but that was a great post.

Do those of us who own 4 or 5 dictionaries (i.e. every regular SteveReader) offset the 90 percent who own none?

On a totally unrelated note - Jim Shooter is taking over writing Legion of Superheroes. Put that in your device for smoking (consisting of a tube of wood, clay, or other material with a small bowl at one end) and smoke it.

Beepy said...

Oh Aidan, I sense a biting Stevereads retort coming your way. I hope the acid doesn't burn you as badly as it did the last time.

Sam said...

Well, there's no knowing whether Aidan's comment is a question or a fragment of a poetic statement (e.g., who reads the dictionary has his own reward on Earth). Presumably his computer crashed before he could finish the eloquent idea.

Anyway, a wonderful post. The omission of the legendary OED seems conspicuous. I've read in a friend's twenty-odd volume set and had a great time, but I'm assuming you think the sheer impracticality of it (both its price and girth) render the chance of owning it moot?

(I was going to write, "moot the possibility of owning it," but my Webster's tells me the the verb form of "moot" is archaic and in any case means argue or debate.)

steve said...

a) the best American dictionary beats the best LIMEY dictionary any day of the week and twice on Sunday

b) "who reads the dictionary" is, one hopes, answered herein! We here at Stevereads read the dictionary!

c) Jim Shooter is NOT going to write for the Legion. That is a lie, lie, lie, lie, lie. That is a lie that would not even be believed by OTHER lies. Dont tell me (not my mistake - blogger doesnt seem to be letting me make contractions), let me guess: Jack Kirby is coming back to Fantastic Four. Lie, lie, lie, lie, LIE.

Kevin Caron said...

True, true,
true.

Gianni said...

I can only imagine; The cultural elite resting in Steve's parlor, Steve sitting in a huge plush chair with his two dogs flanking him (in their own chairs, of course) each person clutching a brandy snifter and their own copy of the American Heritage dictionary, reading aloud their favorite passages. It's... a disconcerting image, to say the least.

Beepy said...

"Well, there's no knowing whether Aidan's comment is a question or a fragment of a poetic statement (e.g., who reads the dictionary has his own reward on Earth). Presumably his computer crashed before he could finish the eloquent idea."


Sam, I like the way you think!

Greg said...

"era of the cult of the amateur"

Ugh.

Kevin Caron said...

I edited a Wikipedia page for the first time the other day. Gross misuse of the word 'nevertheless'. I couldn't take it. I think it was the entry for "The Black Rider".

steve said...

Naturally, when I - when the WORLD - clicks on the 'link' Kevin provides, what crops up ISN'T a web-page miraculously backing up his contention that the Beatles are touring again. Instead, it's a sickly white screen with the words 'There seems to be a problem with the network' written on it.

To which I can only reply: you BET there is! The network problem involves the tangled software of Kevin's MIND, where LIESLIESLIES are 'coded' as truth ....

Kevin Caron said...

Works when I click it. Their forums do go down every now and then. Still don't believe me? Here's the official DC link.

Is your mock disbelief supposed to illustrate that you like the idea of Shooter's return, or that you don't? I can't tell anymore.

Sam said...

How did someone misuse 'nevertheless'? Seems difficult to pull off, but irregardless, I guess it's possible.

Kevin Caron said...

Heh heh.

steve said...

of COURSE I would like it! Shooter virtually invented the Legion - and he'll no more be returning to it than Gene Colan will be returning to Doctor Strange, than John Buscema will be returning to Conan, or than Steve Rude will be returning to Nexus! It's all LIES!

Kevin Caron said...

(For those of you keeping score, Buscema's dead, Colan's reportedly working on a Brubaker Captain America story, and Steve Rude is in fact drawing Nexus again.)

I'm pretty psyched, too - not only were Shooter's Legion runs terrific (Mordru? The Sun Eater?) & full of defining moments in Legion history, but I've always enjoyed other projects of his, like the first Secret Wars and Star Brand. I wasn't sure what it would take to get me to pick up Legion again. Now I know.

Gianni said...

Just so everyone knows, I printed out a hard copy of the official DC page for Steve, since his interns were all suffering from frostbite (Steve keeps the Stevereads offices COLD) and he STILL doesn't believe it.

Kevin Caron said...

Next big Jim himself will stop by SteveReads HQ with his laptop and go, "look, Steve - here's my scripts for the first six issues of the run! Here are some jpgs of the pencils! Look, the colorist just emailed me some proofs to look over! Here's my contract with DC!"

*Steve rolls his eyes in disbelief. Jim's cell rings*

"That's Paul Levitz on the phone - he wants to make sure they have the right address to send my paycheck to."

*starting to freak out at Steve's dismissal - begins typing exaggeratedly*

"LOOK STEVE! I'M WRITING IT RIGHT NOW! I'M WRITING LEGION OF SUPERHEROES! FOR DC! STARTING IN DECEMBER! YOU BASTARD! WHY? WHY WON'T YOU BELIEVE ME? AAAAAAAAAARGH!"

*jumps out the window in anguish*

"AAAAAAAAAAAAaaaaaargh!"

Thus Steve was right all along. Jim Shooter is NOT writing Legion starting in December, because he died plummeting from Steve's window.

steve said...

it's a tragic loss, but the important thing is, I was right.

Gianni said...

Steve will have the December Legion of Superheros in his hands, it'll say Jim Shooter on the cover, and he still won't believe it.

Kevin Caron said...

Uh-oh... Someone hit CTRL-ALT-DEL - the SteveReader is frozen again...

Beepy said...

Well, the place to be this month is Moving Picture Trash anyway. If you haven't tried it, what are you waiting for?


(Steve has the link on his page or you can type it in:
movingpicturetrash.blogspot.com)

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